Oil and fuel oil are a thing of the past, and gas heating is losing popularity: the future belongs to modern technology, such as heat pumps, Deutsche Welle reports. What are the new trends in home heating in Germany?
Currently, homes in Germany are heated mainly with fossil fuels: half of the homes use natural gas, a quarter – petroleum products. The various devices that use electricity are only five percent, according to official data.
However, environmental and especially electrical technologies are playing an increasing role, and among them in the first place – heat pumps, also called heat pumps. They already dominate new housing, according to the Federal Statistical Office.
Oil heating systems are no longer installed in Germany
There is a tendency to reduce the use of hydrocarbons and, first of all, natural gas. In 2000, gas heating was installed in 74 percent of new homes in Germany, in 2010 – in 53 percent, and in 2020 – only 39 percent.
At the same time, the Germans are increasingly abandoning the once popular heating with fuel oil or naphtha. If in 2000 every fifth new home was connected to a boiler, then in 2020 this technology is almost not applied in new homes – it is reduced to 0.7 percent.
The explanation for this is simple: in 2026 a ban on the installation of heating using petroleum products will come into force in Germany (old boilers will be able to continue to be used, but the state is ready to generously subsidize their replacement with more modern technologies). This is one of the points in the government’s climate protection program adopted in 2019.
RES in every second new home
In place of gas or oil heating systems in new German homes, various types of heat pumps are increasingly being installed – last year their share in newly built homes was 46 percent. The statistical office classifies them as technologies that use renewable energy sources (RES) – along with installations that heat homes with biogas or wood pellets.
Therefore, statisticians say that last year, for the first time in German history, more than half of newly built homes (50.5 percent) were equipped with heating systems based on renewable energy sources. These include, for example, geothermal heat pumps that use underground heat and air heat pumps that absorb heat from the air.
By the way, the electricity used by these devices in Germany is increasingly produced from renewable sources. In 2020, for the first time, their share exceeded 50 percent of the electricity used in the country.
Is this the heating of the future?
The media usually compares heat pumps with air conditioners switched on in heating mode, or with refrigerators, which, however, work in the opposite direction – from cold to warm. According to the Federal Union of Manufacturers of such pumps in 2020, their number in the country has reached one million.
A few days after the parliamentary elections, this organization presented to the future parliament and the future government a program to increase the number of pumps to three million in 2025 and to six million in 2030. “There are already plans for the number of electric cars and wind turbines, it’s time to cover the heat pumps,” the document said. Its aim is to get German politicians to signal that switching to this type of heating is part of a large-scale climate protection program, and then to take concrete legislative and organizational decisions to ensure a steady flow of staff and investment in this relatively new field. .